Equality in the USA (1945-1968)
Change for African Americans, 1945-1955
Economic and social
* During WWII many AA left South to North for factory work (great migration) by 1945 almost 50% AA lived in the towns and cities.
* Many found industrial jobs with better pay (less demand for labourers) still little prospect of skilled jobs.
* In North AA began to developed own communities centred around church, trade unions & NAACP.
* Larger communities and being close together helped campaign.
Servicemen after the war
* Aprox 1,000,000 AA served in war
* Saw Nazi racism which inspired them to defeat racism in USA
* When returned treated with disrespect by whites e.g beaten for wearing uniform
* Many still found it hard to get a job
* However veterans did benefit from 1944 GI Bill of Rights (proved education grants for ex-servicemen)
* In 1946 Truman expressed disgust for racism toward black servicemen, some argue his anger made him want to aid civil rights movement
Denied the right to vote
* In south most AA prevent voting I.e poll taxes, unfair literacy tests
* Only people registered to vote could go jury service = all white juries
* During war many AA challenged southern officials by registering vote , by 1952 1,000,000 registered in south, but vast majority prevented still in 1955.
* In North a lot more black people could vote, causing politicians to try and appeal to them
* The impact of black voters can be seen in the election of the first black congressmen in 1944, their votes also influenced Trumans re-election
Segregation was enforced in the south
* Jim crow laws still existed (separate facilities)
* Facilities provided were poor and under funded
* Many AA didn’t challenge this as those who did faced loss of jobs, arrest or violence form groups such as kkk
* In North segregation laws were less common and could live, work and...