Grammar Teaching－Practice or Consciousness-Raising?
The definition of practice: the practice stage consists of series exercises…whose aim is to absorb the structure thoroughly. Practice activities include mechanical practice, contextualized practice and communicative practice. Practice has the following characters:
1. There is some attempt to isolate a specific grammar for focused attention.
2. The learners are required to produce sentences containing the target features.
3. The learners will be provided with opportunities for repetition the target features.
4. There is an expectancy that learners will perform the grammatical feature correctly. Therefore, activities are “success oriented.”
5. The learners receive feedback on whether their performance of grammatical structure is correct or not. This feedback may be immediate or delayed.
The definition of consciousness-raising: it involves an attempt to equip the learner with understanding of a specific grammar-to develop a declarative rather than procedural knowledge of it. The main characters are following:
1. There is an attempt to isolate a specific grammar for focused attention.
2. The learners are provided with data which illustrate the target and they may also be supplied with an explicit rule describing or explaining the feature.
3. The learners are expected to utilize intellectual effort to understand the target feature.
4. Misunderstanding and incomplete understanding of the grammatical structure by the learners leads to clarification in the form of further data and description or explanation.
5. Learners may be required to articulate the rule describing the grammatical structure.
The main difference between practice and consciousness-raising is that consciousness-raising doesn’t involve the learner in repeated production. This is because the aim of consciousness-raising is not to enable the learner to perform a structure correctly but simply to help him to know about it. However, the two...