1.1.The English language originated from Anglo-Frisian dialects, which made part of the West Germanic language group. The Germanic tribes which conquered Britain in the 5th century belonged, as ancient; historians say, to three tribes, the Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes.
The earliest mention, of the British Isles is in the 4th century B.C. At this time Britain was inhabited by Celtic tribes (Britons and Gaels), who spoke various Celtic languages.
Celtic languages are divided into two main groups: the Gallo- j Breton and the Gaelic. The Gallo-Breton group comprises (1) Gallic, which was spoken in Gaul (modern France), and (2) British, represented by Welsh (or Cymry) In Wales, Cornish in Cornwall (became extinct in the 18th century), and Breton in Brittany. The Gaelic j group comprises (1) Irish, (2) Scots, so-called Erse, (3) Manx, on the Isle of Man, between Scotland and Ireland.
1.2. In 55 B.C. the Romans under Julius Caesar first landed in Britain. Permanent conquest of Britain began in 43 A.D., under the emperor Claudius. The Romans subdued the Britons, and colonized the country, establishing a great number of military camps, which eventually developed into English cities. About 80 A.D., under the emperor Domitian, the Romans reached the river Glottal (the Clyde) and the river Bodotria (the Forth). They occupied a territory including the modern cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow.
In this period Britain became a Roman province. Roman civilization — paved roads, powerful walls of military camps — completely transformed the aspect of the country. The Latin language superseded the Celtic dialects in townships and probably also spread over the country-side.
The Romans ruled Britain for almost four hundred years
1.4. It was about mid-5th century that Britain was conquered by Germanic tribes. An old saying names the year 449 as the year of the conquest, and Hengest and Horsa as the two leaders of the invaders. The Britons fought against the conquerors for...