Legislatures play a larger foreign policy role in democratic countries, but even in other states legislative authority is constrained by many factors.
One of these is that chief executives usually have b in the realm of foreign policy.
Tradition is a second factor that works to the advantage of chief executives n foreign policy making. The leadership has historically run foreign policy in virtually all countries, especially in time of war and other crises.
Third is the belief that a unified national voice is important to a successful foreign policy.
Fourth, legislators tend to focus on domestic policy because, accurately or not, most voters perceive it to be more important than foreign policy and make voting decisions based on this sense of priority.
In every political system, those who are in power face rivals who would replace them, either to change policy or to gain power. In democratic systems, this opposition is legitimate and is organized into political parties.
Interest Groups are private associations of people who have similar policy views and who pressure the government to adopt those views as policy.
Traditionally, interest groups were generally considered to be less active and influential on foreign policy than on domestic policy issues.
Cultural Groups- Many countries have ethnic, racial, religious, or other cultural groups that have emotional or political ties to another country.
Economic Groups- They lobby their government s for favourable legislation and for support of their interests in other countries.
Issue-oriented Groups- Groups of this type are not based on any narrow socioeconomic category such as ethnicity economics. Instead they draw their membership from people who have a common policy goal.
Transnational Interest Groups- Increasing interdependence and modern communications give interest groups the need and ability to lobby across borders.