Critically evaluate the claims made by liberals regarding how we might best promote peaceful co-operation between states.
The essay will focus on the liberalist views of how to promote peace and co-operation between states, being one of the main points of liberal ideology with regards to international relations., ‘Perpetual Peace’ (Kant 1795) and ‘The metaphysics of morals’ (Kant 1785) as Kant is often thought of as the leading figure of classical realism. The paper will critically evaluate these ideas from a realist perspective. The central argument is that although Kant’s ideas are excellent guidelines to the liberal view of how we can achieve world peace, it ignores basic realist assumptions of human nature and the international system which I believe to be undeniable. The first section of the paper will briefly examine the six preliminary points of Kant’s ‘Perpetual Peace’ (Kant 1795). These are the pre-conditions he believes are required before the three definitive articles, to be discussed later, can have an effect. Secondly, the first definitive article, ‘the civil constitution of every state shall be republican’ (Kant 1795) is reviewed. This is the origin of the ‘Democratic peace thesis’ and will be discussed critically in relation to realist objections to this. Thirdly, ‘the right of nations shall be based on a federation of Free states’ (Kant 1795), will be examined. Again it will be critically evaluated with reference to realism and neo-realism. The next section in the paper will evaluate Kant’s third pre-condition to peace, his third definitive article. This is ‘cosmopolitan right shall be limited to conditions of universal hospitality’ (Kant 1795). As Kant’s work has been in evaluated in the context of realism, the final section of prose is will be a brief summary of realist theory of peace to provide further knowledge to the reader.
Another way to organise this essay would be as follows. The first section of prose would be about the...