-Erik Erikson’s Theory of Development
-Freud’s was called Psychosexual Theory of Personality Development
-Erikson’s is called Psychosocial Theory
-There are 8 Stages to a person’s life
-At each stage, there are particular challenges to deal with
-If the challenge is overcome and resolved, no psychological problems result
-If they are not successfully resolved, negative consequences to the personality may result (e.g. guilt, shame, lack of trust, etc.)
-The stages are as follows:
Trust Vs. Mistrust (first year of life)
-based on interactions with caretakers. Major challenge is to establish the belief, for life, that the world is a good and trustworthy place. Poor caretaking may result in being mistrustful and suspicious.
Autonomy Vs Shame and Doubt (1-3 years)
-Conflict between sense of exploration and getting reprimanded (scolded) for getting into things. Guilty if parents always say no. Lack of self confidence.
Initiative Vs Guilt (3-5 years)
-Conflict is between taking the initiative with expanding physical and social world. If the child is irresponsible or anxious in doing this, then they feel guilty. Initiative to play with others or bully
Industry Vs Inferiority (6-puberty)
-During middle and late childhood. This occurs during school years. Child must demonstrate competencies in school, social activities, and in learning about various aspects of his/her culture. Failure to master these may result in a sense of inferiority that lasts for a long time. (e.g. poor students in grade school and junior high may have poor sense of self esteem in adulthood.)
-Like Freud’s Latency Stage
Identity Vs Identity Confusion (during adolescence, 12-20 years)
-Main challenge is to develop a stable sense of identity that is different from one’s family. During this stage there is experimentation with various identities, but by the end of this stage specific identities tend to emerge in most young people. In addition, personal value systems are...