TABLE OF CONTENTS
Disease prevention mechanism 3
Challenges of disease control 3
This paper is carried out within the Nairobi County. Historical records show malaria to be an ancient disease that affected early man as well as certain animals. In contrast to other diseases with symptoms that have changes over time, the symptoms of malaria have remained the same since they were first recorded more than 2000 years ago (Jamieson and Toove, 2006).
According to Jamieson and Toove (2006) defined Malaria is a disease, caused by any of four species of parasite that is carried from person to person by a mosquito and transmitted by the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria is primarily a disease of the red blood cells and small blood vessels. By causing the cells to become ‘sticky’ and eventually to burst, it causes blockage of the small blood vessels in the major organs of the body. This can cause severe disease and death in the case of infection with the P.falciparum species of malaria, this can occur within 24 hours of the disease first becoming evident.
Malaria caused by the other three parasites, namely, Plasmodium vivax, P.ovale and P.malariae, is much milder and does not cause death, although they cause recurrent malaria that in itself is a debilitating disease. The malaria parasite is found mostly in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Mosquito breeding is severely hampered in temperatures below 20 0C
Malaria is an infection caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium; four species of which infect human beings, the most common being Plasmodium vivax and most deadly being Plasmodium falciparum. The Anopheles mosquito serves as Plasmodium’s delivery system, or vector. Only female mosquitoes can transmit it since males don’t take blood meals. Anopheles mosquitoes bite mainly during night time hours and early hours in the morning (IDRC, 2008).