They are characterized by soft muddy soil with high concentration of salt and very low levels of oxygen and exposed to a high intensity of sunlight.
Avicennia sp. Hv long underground cable roots tat support them in the soft and muddy soil and protect them from strong coastal wind. These root produce breathing roots called pneumatophores.
Rhizophora sp. Hv prop roots. These are aerial roots that not only anchor the plants to the mud, but also play an important role in aeration. Aeration can take place through lenticels found on the tree barks of Rhizophora sp.
The leaves of mangrove hv thick cuticle which reduce transpiration during hot weather. The leaves are succulent to store water. The root cell of mangroves hv higher osmotic pressure than the surrounding salt water. Thus the cell sap of the root does not lose water by osmosis. The salt water tat enter the root cell is excreted through hydathodes.
Mangrove seeds are able to germinate while still being attached to the parent tree. This phenomenan is called viviparity. Viviparity increase the chances of survival of the seedlings as they can float on the water and be washed up sand where they settle to establish new populations.
The seaward zone is fully exposed to high tides twice a day. The sp. Tat inhabits this zone include Avicennia sp.and Sonneratia sp. The middle zone is inhabited by Rhizophora sp. The inland zone is Bruguiera sp.
The pioneer species in mangrove r Avicennia sp.and Sonneratia sp. The extensive root systems of these mangrove trees collect sediments,including organic matter from decaying plant. As time pass, the soil become more compact and firm. This condition favour the growth of Rhizophora sp. This species gradually replace the pioneer sp. The arching roots of Rhizophora trao silt and mud creating a firmer soil structure. The ground become higher and the soil become drier. Tis condition now become suitable for Bruguiera sp. The buttress root of B. sp. form loops which...