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Water and Waste Water Management

The Water Cycle
In a dynamic water cycle, water is constantly evaporating from both water and land surfaces, and condenses into clouds and returns to earth in the form of rain, sleet and snow.
Evaporation  condensation

Biological contamination
Water was mostly local and largely biological. Human wastes were dumped on the ground or into the nearest streams. Disease organisms were transmitted through food, water and direct contact.
Chemical Contamination: From farm, factory, and home
Factories were built on river banks and chemicals and other wastes from these factories were dumped into streams. Chemical contaminations are caused by the use of fertilizers, pesticides and oil spills in ocean and rivers. Acids enter waterways from mines, factories and from acid rain. Household chemicals such as detergents and solvents.

Groundwater Contamination
Toxic chemicals buried in dumpsites many years ago have now infiltrated the ground water supply. The major source of groundwater contamination is LUST “Leaking Underground Storage Tanks”

Wastewater Treatment Plants
Methods to remove impurities and the dissolved contaminants making the water safe for drinking
1. Primary sewage treatment
2. Secondary Waste water Treatment Activated Sludge Method
3. Advanced treatment or tertiary treatment

After removing the effluents from sewage plants, water is treated with CHLORINE to kill the pathogenic microorganisms. Chlorine is also used to treat drinking water.

Reasons for Severe Water Shortage
1. Rapidly increasing population
2. Rising demand by agriculture, industry and cities
3. Urban use and waste of water
4. Unequal distribution of water
5. Pollution- contamination of lakes, streams and underground water.
Clean water Act
The Philippine clean water act of 2004 (R.A 9275) – aims to protect the country’s water bodies from pollution from land-based sources...

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