The changing needs of today’s employees and the rising costs of retraining and replacing key employees are driving the need for more creative motivational strategies. Management must strive to get the best possible results from their staff using strategies that will develop a commitment to excellence and also to the success of the company. Successful companies use a variety of popular strategies. It is very common to see several different motivational strategies, which may be derived from separate theories, working together at the same time.
Theories of Motivation
In order to discuss the many motivational strategies employed in today’s business environment, we have to understand the history of motivational strategies contained in the three basic perspectives on motivation. These three theories include Content, Process, and Reinforcement Perspectives.
Content Perspectives suggest individual needs are the main motivational factors, as outlined by Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs or in Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory. These theories center on basic human needs and personal satisfaction as motivators. While these ideas have merit, many believe the studies are inconclusive. However, overall, the human needs theories do play a key role in increasing awareness of the importance of motivation in the workplace (Griffin, 2006, p.329).
Process Perspectives try to explain why certain behavioral choices are made and how people evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained these goals (Griffin, 2006, p.330). This perspective centers on an individual’s goals and if the person believes he can meet and/or exceed the goals and how this may relate to his cohorts. It basically revolves around human behavior and self-assumptions. We attempt to fulfill certain goals because we desire the outcome that we believe we can achieve if we meet a specific goal and apply the right amount of effort to get the job done.
Finally, Reinforcement Perspectives centers on the use of...