Clovis of the Franks - Clovis or Chlodowech was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the leadership from a group of royal chieftains.
Battle of Tours/Charles Martel - The Battle of Tours (October 732), also called the Battle of Poitiers and in Arabic: ....The Frankish realm under Charles Martel was the foremost military power.
Charlemagne - Charlemagne, also known as Charles the Great or Charles I, was the founder of the Carolingian Empire, reigning from 768 until his death.
Urban II - Blessed Pope Urban II, born Otho de Lagery, was pope from 12 March 1088 until his death on 29 July 1099. He is best known for starting the First Crusade and setting up the modern-day Roman Curia in the manner of a royal court to help run the Church.
Saladin - Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb, better known in the Western world as Saladin, was a Kurdish Muslim, who became the first Sultan of Egypt and Syria, and founded the Ayyubid dynasty.
Thomas Aquinas - Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P., also Thomas of Aquin or Aquino, was an Italian Dominican priest of the Roman Catholic Church, and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian.
Marco Polo - Marco Polo was a Venetian merchant traveler whose travels are recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China.
Joan of Arc - Joan of Arc, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans", is a folk heroine of France and a Roman Catholic saint. She was born a peasant girl in what is now eastern France.
Magna Carta - Magna Carta, also called Magna Carta Libertatum or The Great Charter of the Liberties of England, is an Angevin charter, originally issued in Latin in the year 1215, translated into vernacular-French as early as 1219, and reissued later in the 13th century in modified versions.