Nomadic pastoralists founded states and even empires long the Silk Road, using examples discuss the methods they used in this process and the particular problems they faced.
The Nomadic pastoralist found states and even empires along the silk road. Its empires were not spontaneously formed but through ‘crisis’, ‘militariasion’ and ‘centralisation’ (Di Cosmo’s, 2002). The Xiongnu and the Mongol Empires will be used as primary examples in explaining methods that the nomadic pastoralist employed in states or/and empires' formation. Also, this paper will analyse the major problems existed in establishing and retaining an empire. The nomadic state problems were extremely yielded along their interaction with the sedentary society. These interactions were evidently associated with the nature of the pastoralist society, the lack of significant economic surplus and military threat. The argument is that the extensive nomad’s social structure, economic and political complexity proposed a distinctive model and structure of an idiosyncratic nomadic state.
Nomadic Empire Formation Stages.
Ecologist studies revealed the fact that the ecological nature of the nomadic’s pasture land caused permanent insufficient of agriculture product. This was because of the Central and Inner Asia desert, steppe and arid grasslands’ characteristics made possible impractical plant-based agriculture, henceforth, pastoralist lives depended upon herd animals. Under these conditions, livestock, agriculture products and resources supplied by the agrarian empire were crucial for survival (Barfield, 1989).
Firstly, ‘crisis’ was one of the most critical stages that begot the creation of the Nomadic Empire. ‘Crisis’ was generated by the imbalance between consumption and production (Di Cosmo, 2002, p. 108). Widely acknowledge that the steppe environment and extreme climate reduce the size of herds and grass in winter thus forced pastoralists and herders to migrate to...