1. A.) In the process known as de-etiolation the signal is light and the receptor is phytochrome.
B.) First, the light signal is detected by the phytochrome receptor, which activates at least two signal transduction pathways. Then one pathway uses cGMP as a second messenger that activates the protein kinase. Eventually both pathways lead to expression of genes for proteins that function in the de-etiolation (greening) response.
C.) The response of the plant in the process de-etiolation is greening of the plant.
4. Abscisic acid
8. Because the fungal toxin stimulates the plasma membrane H+ pump of plant cells it might affect the growth of an isolated stem section poorly, in terms of eventually killing the plant.
9. The phytochrome system can provide information on the quality of light by sensing the ratio of red to far red light. This could affect a shaded tree by having them adjust towards far red light because shade screens out more red light.
10. If work must be done at night the best light source would be the moon for it does not affect flowering patterns because flowers are used to the moon.
11. One reason that may have caused the plants nearest the aisle to be shorter is that they may have been rubbed up against by people walking buy, this would cause the plant not to grow as well and could very likely considering the plants were nearest to the aisle.
12. Perhaps the insects in the breezy location are looking for shelter and they take shelter in the plants and lay eggs, while in the sheltered area the insects are not in such a need to find shelter, thus not as many take refuge in the plants.