In an organization, there is no definite way to define how an organization is structured or how it operates. Organizational studies therefore attempt to generate knowledge through various theories using multiple perspectives. Bolman & Deal (2008) suggests that the best way to understand these theories is through different lenses or perspectives of the organization.
In the first part of this essay, I will be introducing two approaches in generating knowledge; Ontology and Epistemology. Next I will give a brief description of the Modernist and the Symbolic Interpretive perspectives and the ways in which we can use to understand Organizational Power, Control and Conflict in each perspective.
In the second part of this essay I will be applying these two perspectives in analyzing Google and its relationship with the Environment and lastly, how it has evolved into a Global Organization.
Ontology and Epistemology Assumptions
Ontology and Epistemology is the basis of all theories; the reason why a certain theory is developed. Ontology is concerned about reality and questioning about its existence. An Ontology Subjectivist is simply saying that something exists because it was experienced and then ‘created’ by an individual who is influenced by the individual’s assumptions, beliefs and perceptions (Hatch, 2006). An Ontology Objectivist accepts reality because it is the assumed behaviour. Epistemology is questioning the way knowledge is collected. A Positivist Epistemology uses scientific measurements such as collecting data to analyze and to develop a hypothesis, which is then used to test against reality. Burell and Morgan (1979) identify positivism as, “seeking to explain and predict what happens in the social world by searching for regularities and causal relationships between its constituent elements”. Interpretive Epistemology is to work alongside individuals in an organization to experience and deduce an organization from their point of view....