Indo-Pakistani relations are grounded in the political, geographic, cultural, and economic links between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Republic of India, two of the largest and fastest-developing countries in South Asia. The two countries share much of their common geographic location, and religious demographics yet diplomatic relations between the two are defined by numerous military conflicts and territorial disputes
Soon after Independence, India and Pakistan established diplomatic relations. Subsequent years were marked by bitter periodic conflict, and the nations went to war four times. The war in 1971 ended in defeat and another partition of Pakistan. The eastern wing split off as a new country named Bangladesh, while the western wing continued as Pakistan.
There was some improvement in relations since the mid-2000s. But relations soured again after the 2007 Samjhauta Express bombings by Indian extremists, and the 2008 Mumbai Terrorist Attacks by a group of Pakistani men, and now mutual suspicion governs the relationship again.
The Lahore summit
In late 1998 and early 1999, Vajpayee began a push for a full-scale diplomatic peace process with Pakistan. With the historic inauguration of the Delhi-Lahore bus service in February 1999, Vajpayee initiated a new peace process aimed towards permanently resolving the Kashmir dispute and other territorial/nuclear/strategic conflicts with Pakistan. The resultant Lahore Declaration espoused a commitment to dialogue, expanded trade relations and the goal of denuclearized South Asia, and mutual friendship. This eased the tension created by the 1998 nuclear tests, not only within the two nations, but also in South Asia and the rest of the world.
More importantly and soon after, it was revealed that thousands of terrorists and non-uniformed Pakistani soldiers (many with official identifications and Pakistan Army's custom weaponry) had infiltrated into the Kashmir Valley and...