PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE Packag. Technol. Sci. 2006; 19: 45–54 Published online 30 November 2005 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI:10.1002/pts.714
Radio Frequency Identiﬁcation (RFID) Performance:The Effect of Tag Orientation and Package Contents
By Robert H. Clarke,1 Diana Twede,1,* Jeffrey R.Tazelaar1 and Kenneth K. Boyer2
School of Packaging, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA Supply Chain Management, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between different product types and tag orientations on the readability of RFID tags on shipping containers in a palletload that is driven through a portal type reader. This research ﬁnds that the content of packages can dramatically reduce the read rate. Only 25% of the tags on shipping containers containing water-ﬁlled bottles could be read. Rice-ﬁlled jars had a higher read rate (80.6%). Even empty boxes did not have a 100% read rate. For the variables without appreciable package contents, only 74–79% of loads had all of their tags read. The orientation of the tag does make a difference, especially when coupled with a ﬁlled package between it and the reader antennae. Tags facing outwards, towards the reader antennae, had the highest likelihood of a successful read. When tags for the boxes of water-ﬁlled bottles were all facing downwards, no tags were read. Supply chain managers need to understand these limitations of the technology and ﬁnd ways to overcome them before RFID can be successfully implemented in supply chains. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Received 14 February 2005; Revised 2 September 2005; Accepted 16 September 2005
radio frequency identiﬁcation (RFID); automatic identiﬁcation; supply chain; logistics; shipping container; palletload
Radio frequency identiﬁcation (RFID) offers the potential to revolutionize supply chain...