The foundation of Western parenting typologies used today consists of early factoranalytic
studies conducted more than four decades ago. These early factor analyses identified
important parenting dimensions, and this dimensional approach was widely used in examining
socialization influence (Hart, Newel et al., 2003). For instance, Symonds (1939) identified two
parenting dimensions, acceptance/rejection and dominance/submission. Similarly, Schaefer
(1959) employed two dimensions, love/hostility and autonomy/control, and further explored
parenting styles that varied along those dimensions. While this dimensional approach was
popular and substantially increased our understanding of the influence of socialization, those
dimensions were largely based on empirical findings from factor analyses and often lacked a
strong theoretical groundwork (Darling & Steinberg, 1993).
Diana Baumrind’s (1967, 1971) work has been recognized as a meaningful divergence
from the early empirical, factor-analytic tradition. Her model was more theoretical than earlier
ones and elaborated on one single parenting domain—parental control (Darling & Steinberg,
1993). In her influential monograph, “Current Patterns of Parental Authority,” Baumrind (1971)
identified three distinct patterns of parental authority: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive
parental control. Rather than focusing solely on the amount of parental control like some of the
earlier studies on parenting, Baumrind (1967, 1971) identified “three qualitatively different types
of control” (Darling & Steinberg, 1993, p. 490). While Baumrind’s typologies derived from her
study of various patterns of parental authority, she found that other parental attributes, such as
socialization goals and communication skills, were also closely related to the distinction that she
had made among the three patterns of parental control.
Maccoby and Martin’s (1983) work was influential in linking Baumrind’s typologies...