Phases of Industrialisation in Europe:
• 1750-1820: Industrial revolution began in Britain, dominated field in 18th century:
--coal mining (Wales, midlands and north of England)
--iron making (ironbridge)
--cotton-spinning (spinning-jenny, James Hargreaves)
--but most of country rural areas, untouched by it
--industrial development relied on: specific limited technology; canals, water power, coal, sources for cotton shipping (but not railways or much use of steam)
• 1840-1870: Second phase, in Britain, but now also in Belgium, France then states which were to become Germany, then eventually Russia:
--iron and steel
--linen and silk (France)
--chemicals, dyes etc
--industrial development relied on: steam-power, railways
--close relation of private investment and state investment/approval
• 1890-1910: Third phase, in all of those countries, plus N. Italy, Sweden (need to jump stages through which earlier industrializing countries have passed e.g. Sweden, direct from poor agricultural economy to specialized manufacturing (e.g. fine steel). Italy, traditions of small highly skilled craftsmen adapted to industries such as cars, typewriters etc.
--wide range of machinery, powered by gas, electricity, oil for use in agriculture, transport, home, industry etc.
--industries relied on: gas, electricity, oil.
Some key dates for industrialization of Europe:
1698. First commercial steam engine developed by Thomas Savery to pump water out of flooded mines in England (further developed in 1760s by James Watt)
1740. Benjamin Huntsman built first steel foundry in Sheffield, England
1768. James Hargreaves designed spinning jenny, set up
spinning mill in Nottingham, England (illiterate carpenter and weaver)
1779. First iron bridge, Coalbrookdale, England