The politeness principle
Leech's maxims | Face and politeness strategies | Examples from Brown and Levinson | Phatic tokens
The politeness principle is a series of maxims, which Geoff Leech has proposed as a way of explaining how politeness operates in conversational exchanges. Leech defines politeness as forms of behaviour that establish and maintain comity. That is the ability of participants in a social interaction to engage in interaction in an atmosphere of relative harmony. In stating his maxims Leech uses his own terms for two kinds of illocutionary acts. He calls representatives “assertives”, and calls directives “impositives”.
• Each maxim is accompanied by a sub-maxim (between square brackets), which is of less importance. These support the idea that negative politeness (avoidance of discord) is more important than positive politeness (seeking concord).
• Not all of the maxims are equally important. For instance, tact influences what we say more powerfully than does generosity, while approbation is more important than modesty.
• Note also that speakers may adhere to more than one maxim of politeness at the same time. Often one maxim is on the forefront of the utterance, with a second maxim being invoked by implication.
• If politeness is not communicated, we can assume that the politeness attitude is absent.
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• Tact maxim (in directives [impositives] and commissives): minimise cost to other; [maximise benefit to other]
• Generosity maxim (in directives and commissives): minimise benefit to self; [maximise cost to self]
• Approbation maxim (in expressives and representatives [assertives]): minimise dispraise of other; [maximise praise of other]
• Modesty maxim (in expressives and representatives): minimise praise of self; [maximise dispraise of self]
• Agreement maxim (in representatives): minimise disagreement between self and other; [maximise agreement between self and...