Running head: CERVICAL CANCER
Prevention of Cervical Cancer: The Human Papillomavirus Vaccine
Georgia College & State University
November 29, 2006
Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is present in the majority of all cervical cancer cases. Given the prevalence of HPV as the most common sexually transmitted disease in young sexually active people the risk for cervical cancer is tremendous. HPV is a DNA virus and has the potential to alter the DNA of human cells. This alteration in turn causes a response of cellular overgrowth of cancer. Risk factors have been identified that increase the progression of these cellular changes for those infected with HPV. The importance of decreasing these risk factors for HPV and encouragement of the HPV vaccine can affect the mortality and morbidity of these individuals. To decrease the prevalence of HPV and subsequent deaths from cervical cancer, lifestyle changes and preventive measures must occur in those at risk.
The Prevention of Cervical Cancer: The Human Papillomavirus Vaccine
Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among women worldwide. It is second only to breast cancer (Lowy & Schiller, 2006). Mortality rates have decreased in the past 30 years due to increased screening with the Pap smear. However, it is estimated that more than 13,000 women will develop cervical cancer, and 4,100 women will die from it in the United States each year (ACS, 2002). Eighty percent of all cervical cancers occur in women in developing countries (Munoz, Bosch, Sanjose, Herrero, et al, 2003). Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been implicated in most cases of cervical cancer. Studies indicate that 80% of all cervical cancers contain DNA from specific types of HPV (ACS, 2002). This is very alarming and is a significant health care concern given the prevalence of clinical diagnosis of HPV. CDC (2006)...