Proteins are biological macromolecules considered as the basic component of a majority of enzymes, other complex bimolecular compounds, and are also required in the synthesis of such compounds. Proteins differ from one another based on the number of peptide structures present within them and the way in which they are folded ore arranged. These peptides are further composed of amino acid molecules that together form a chain to give rise to the peptide’s respective structure. Therefore, large probability of protein existence requires the ability to identify them for characterization process.
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Protein characterization and identification is a fundamental research process to evaluate the contents of a protein based on their molecular weight and their charge. Proteomics is the area of biochemistry that majorly deals with the identification and characterization of proteins based on their structure and chemical properties. Although proteomics mostly consists of experimental or analytical process, a vast amount of work done involves protein purification and mass spectrometry identification of protein characteristics.
Protein electrophoresis and mass spectrometry form a typical fundamental process in the segregation of proteins in a typical proteomics study. Protein Electrophoresis can be done by either denaturing or non denaturing methods. Denaturing process allows protein unfolding and study of various polypeptides by their molecular weight and charge (charge to mass ratio), whereas non denaturing methods (also known as native gel methods) take protein size into consideration as a whole without unfolding the main structure thereby studying its shape and size in the process. Mass spectrometry machines identify proteins by utilizing the difference in light absorptivity caused by the clumping of free proteins. Immunoassays form the second form...