University of Phoenix Material
Neurological Structures and Functions Worksheet
1. Describe why humans have a blind spot.
Humans have a blind spot because the point where the optic nerves leaves the eye does not contain any receptors (University of Phoenix, 2012).
2. Describe the functional and anatomic differences between rods and cones.
Rods and cones are the two kinds of receptors in the retina. Rods are more sensitive to faint light and are more numerous in the periphery. Cones are more useful in bright light and are more numerous in the fovea (Kalat, 2013).
3. Describe the trichromatic and opponent-process theories of color vision.
The trichromatic theory states the perception of color happens through the rate of response by 3 cones: long wavelength (red), medium wavelength (green), and short wavelength (blue). Each cone responds to a wide range of wavelengths, but some respond more than others. The color is determined by the ratio of activity across the 3 cones. The more intense light increases the brightness of color, but does not change the ratio (University of Phoenix, 2012).
The opponent-process theory states that colors are perceived in terms of paired opposites. It is suggested that the brain has a mechanism that perceives continuous color from red to green and another from yellow to blue. Bipolar cells are excited by one set of wavelengths and inhibited by another is a possible mechanism from this theory (University of Phoenix, 2012).
4. Trace the process of interpreting auditory information from the stimulus to the interpretation.
As information from the auditory system passes through subcortical areas, axons cross over in the midbrain to enable each hemisphere of the forebrain to get most of its input from the opposite ear. The information ultimately reaches the primary auditory cortex (area A1) in the superior temporal cortex (Kalat, 2013).
5. Name and describe the major structures of...