psychological perspectives

psychological perspectives

The ID – 0-2 years
This is the unconscious, it develops as soon as an individual is born, and it is the instinct that creates the ‘I want it now’ attitude. It is also the libido which means sexual energy and it fights with the SUPEREGO.

The EGO 2-3 years
This develops due to experiences that have been controlled by the environment. The reality principle with means that the individual is slowly realising, not everything that is wanted is given. This involves finding a way to behave that is socially acceptable. Also balances the demands of the ID and the moral rules of the SUPEREGO.

SUPEREGO 5-6 years
This is the realisation of what is right and what is wrong. Also includes moral values and develops whist the individual is growing, this is known as nurture. SUPEREGO also fights with the ID.

The Iceberg Theory
This breaks up Freud’s theory to help understand. The ‘conscious’ is the only part of the iceberg that is visible, but it is only a small 10%. Most of the iceberg is underwater, this is 90%. It sis made up of the unconscious and the subconscious. The unconscious is the biggest past of the iceberg which takes up 75% whereas the subconscious only takes up 15%.

Levels of consciousness
Conscious – Deals with thoughts, awareness and perceptions.

Preconscious – Related to data, memories and stored knowledge.

Unconscious – Data is retained but not easily available.

Defence Mechanism
Repression – This is a suppression of unpleasant thoughts. The brain pushes the thoughts into the unconscious so they cannot be accessed.
For Example, a traumatic event, so there is no memory.

Denial – This means that the brain is refusing to believe that something unpleasant has happened. For example, bad news can occur but sometimes cannot face the truth and believe that the bad news has occurred.

Realisation – This means justifying the actions that have happened. This means that some actions...

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