Chapter 11 Lecture Notes: Intelligence
➢ We use intelligence tests to give a numerical value to ones mental abilities by comparing them to others.
Origins of Intelligence Testing
➢ Francis Galton (1822-1911): had great enthusiasm in measuring human traits that led to the "eugenics" movement. His goal was to "quantify human superiority" by means of tests on strength, reaction time, sensory precision and even head size. Despite his efforts, no correlation whatsoever was found between general mental abilities and the traits.
➢ Alfred Binet: founder of modem intelligence testing, sought methods to identify students who would have difficulties in regular classes by measuring ones …..
o Mental Age - if you perform the way a typical 10 year old would, then your mental age is 10 years old, regardless of your real age. This lead to labeling problems. (People saw your level of intelligence and not really who you are.)
➢ Lewis Turman: developed the current Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test. The test measures IQ Intelligence Quotient - mental age divided by chronological age(real age) times 100. If you are 12 years old(chronological age) and your mental abilities are the same as those who are 12 years old (mental age). Then your IQ is 12/12 X 100 = 100, the average IQ.
➢ Stanford-Binet Test applied to many people of differing races. The result, Turman realized the reason why non-anglo saxons did worse was because the test measures not only their innate abilities but also education and cultural distinctiveness.
What is Intelligence
➢ We define Intelligence as the ability/capacity to be goal oriented and exhibit adaptive behavior.
➢ IQ is not a fixed "thing"; it is merely a score one obtains from a test.
➢ Know that intelligence is always expressed in a context. (In the context of warriors, musicians, engineers, artists … different intelligence levels will be expressed in...