England and the New World
Unifying the English Nation
England's stability in the sixteenth century was undermined by religious conflicts.
England and Ireland
England's methods to subdue Ireland in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries established patterns that would be repeated in America.
England and North America
The English crown issued charters for individuals such as Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh to colonize America at their own expense, but both failed.
Motives for Colonization
Anti-Catholicism had become deeply ingrained in English popular culture.
A Discourse Concerning Western Planting argued that settlement would strike a blow at England's most powerful Catholic enemy: Spain.
National glory, profit, and a missionary zeal motivated the English crown to settle America.
It was also argued that trade, not mineral wealth, would be the basis of England's empire.
The Social Crisis
A worsening economy and the enclosure movement led to an increase in the number of poor and to a social crisis.
Unruly poor were encouraged to leave England for the New World.
The English increasingly viewed America as a land where a man could control his own labor and thus gain economic independence, particularly through the ownership of land.
The Coming of the English
Sustained immigration was vital for the settlement's survival.
Between 1607 and 1700, a little over half a million persons left England.
They settled in Ireland, the West Indies, and North America.
The majority of settlers in North America were young, single men from the bottom rungs of English society.
Two-thirds of English settlers came to North America as indentured servants.
Indentured servants did not enjoy any liberties while under contract.
Land and Liberty
Land was the basis of liberty.
Englishmen and Indians
The English were chiefly interested in displacing the Indians and...