Kwan Young Chung
1) Discuss two reasons why serfdom re-emerged in Eastern Europe.
What is meant by the term “hereditary subjugation”?
Both reasons for the question why serfdom re emerged in Eastern Europe can be related to the fact that nobles had gained complete control over their peasants by manipulating the legal system. First, they restricted peasants’ freedom of movement therefore in order to go somewhere peasants had to get permissions from the landlords. Second, the lords took peasants’ properties by imposing heavy obligation and took away their lands in force.
Hereditary subjugation means that in 1653 in Prussia, all the peasants were assumed to belong as serfs to their lords. It’s being called “hereditary” because as the word implies, they were tied to their lords generation to generation.
2) Why was the formation of the Protestant Union significant to the outbreak of the Thirty Years War?
Explain what the ‘defenestration of Prague’ was.
It’s significant because the composition of the protestant union also caused the formation of the catholic league. Both alliances claimed that the other should stop grow. It was just beginning of the larger conflict which would later cause 30 years war.
The defenestration of Prague: Ferdinand became the king of Bohemia and he persecuted protestant churches since he was the Catholic king. Angry Protestants hurled 2 Ferdinand’s officials to out of a castle window but officials survived. Catholics asserted angel had saved them where as Protestants said they had fallen on a heap of soft horse manure.
3) Who were the Habsburgs? Why did Charles VI work so hard to get the Pragmatic Sanction accepted?
Why did contemporaries call Prussia the “sand-box of the Holy Roman Empire”?
Habsburg is the oldest royal hereditary family in Austria from 15th century to 1918. During 30 years war their authority had diminished as the consequences of failing efforts to destroy Protestantism in German.