Amphibians → white stingray → reptiles → alligators
→ dinosaurs → lizards → birds
Amphibians link aquatic and terrestrial animals.
Gill and lung- 3 chambered heart.
Amphibians- eggs → embryo → tadpole → front legs break through → starts of pulmonary breathing → tadpole frog → adult frog.
(Energy Trade Offs)
Amphibians as global indicators.
-Ozone Layer- as cloud forest is depleted so are amphibians.
Amphibians 1: Caecilians.
-hemolytic toxins- causes mouth to bleed. Red blood cells burst.
*Unlike most amphibians:
-Internal fertilization- male inseminates women.
-Can lay eggs or give live birth.. depending on surroundings.
Model Caecilians: Boulengerula Taitana
-Live birth, feeds babies her skin.
*The soil is poor- not enough protein to make sac or yolk.
Amphibians 2: Salamanders
-Association with fire (salamander come from fire :myth:)
-Size and Colorizatoin
-Neoteny (retain characteristics of the juvenile even after maturity.)
Model Salamander: Two-toed amphiuma
-Physical Threat- they can bite, aggressive.
Amphibians 3: Frogs (all toads are frogs)
Frog = water Toad = land
All frogs and toads are insectivores.
Long sticky tongue to grab insect.
Model Frog: Cane Toad.
Aggressive, Bark, 3 times there weight in beetles every day.
Out of control population.
Have toxins- which make them uneatable.
Toxins to humans- hallucinogen. (lick toads) → get sick from bacteria.
The Emergence of reptiles
The Reptiles Evolved with Reproductive advances.
-Quality of offspring.
-Quality of parental care.
-Majority are still ectothermic.
Reptiles 1: Lizards and Snakes
-Have two penises
Model Lizard- Basilisk Lizard- (Jesus Lizard)
-Escape predators quickly.
-Speed generated is the major factor.
Reptiles 2: Turtles...