RUNWAY ORIENTATION |
SAJID NADEEM – 12002001004 FATIMA HAFEEZ - 12002001007
November 25, 2012
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft".
The orientation of the runway is an important consideration in airport planning and design. The correct runway orientation maximizes the possible use of the runway throughout the year accounting for a wide variety of wind conditions.FAA and ICAO regulations establish rules about runway orientation and their expected coverage Runway Location Considerations.FAA mandates identification standards for airport layout that is meant to assist pilots in easily recognizing runways.
Ideally, all aircraft operations on a runway should be conducted against the wind. Unfortunately, wind conditions vary from hour to hour thus requiring a careful examination of prevailing wind conditions at the airport site.The challenge for the designer is to accommodate all of the aircraft using the facility in a reliable and reasonable manner.
In navigation, all measurement of direction is performed by using the numbers of a compass. A compass is a 360° circle where 0/360° is North, 90° is East, 180° is South, and 270° is West, as shown in figure.
Runways are laid out according to the numbers on a compass. A runway's compass direction is indicated by a large number painted at the end of each runway. Preceding that number are 8 white stripes. Following that number by 500 feet is the "touchdown zone" which is identified by 6 white stripes.
A runway's number is not written in degrees, but is given a shorthand format. For example, a runway with a marking of "14" is actually 140 degrees. A runway with a marking of "31" has a compass heading of 310 degrees. For simplicity, the...