Animal Health Management
_Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-spore forming, predominantly motile enterobacteria._
_Salmonella are closely related to the Escherichia genus and are found worldwide in warm- and cold-blooded animals, in humans, and in nonliving habitats. They cause illnesses in humans and many animals, such as typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and the food borne illness salmonellosis._
_Salmonella infections are zoonotic; they can be transmitted by humans to animals and vice versa. Salmonella species, is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route. Humans normally acquire the disease from eating contaminated animal products or raw vegetables that have been contaminated. Other modes of zoonotic transmission include direct contact with livestock, wildlife, or pets, especially cats and turtles. Animal-animal transmission happens at the farm through contaminated food and water sources, pastureland, or contact with newly acquired animals. _
_Symptoms of Salmonella gastroenteritis include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and/or vomiting. Headaches, myalgias (muscle pain), and arthralgias (joint pain) are often reported as well. Whereas the diarrhea typically lasts 24 to 72 hours, patients often report fatigue and other nonspecific symptoms lasting 7 days or longer. Salmonella bacteria can be detected in stool or blood cultures, and a diagnosis of salmonellosis is confirmed by culture._
Salmonella_ infections usually resolve in five to seven days, and many times require no treatment unless the patient becomes severely dehydrated or the infection spreads from the intestines. Persons with severe diarrhea may require re-hydration, often with intravenous fluids._
_Treatment with antibiotics is not usually necessary; however, if the infection spreads from the intestines, or otherwise persists, the infection can be treated with ampicillin,...