Scheins model consists of three distinct levels. These are the levels of culture. The levels range from the very visible and tangible to the very tacit and invisible. The first level is known as the visible level or the "artefacts". Scheins model is best demonstrated by comparison to an iceberg. The visible level is the part of the berg that can be viewed above water. It is the simplest level to freely observe what you hear, see and feel in an organisation. All visible structures and processes are on this level. The next level is less visible and is referred to as the espoused level. This level deals with strategies, goals and the philosophies of an organisation. These are the values people say they believe in but that belief may or may not be reflected in their behaviour. At this level the question "why?" is often asked, and appropriate justifications must be given. E.g. "Why are things done the way they are?". Here basic values may be highlighted in company documents (e.g. integrity, customer orientation, product quality etc.) Although two companies may have similar espoused values, inconsistencies may occur. These inconsistencies tell you that a deeper level of thought and perception must be driving the overt behaviour. This deeper level may or may not be consistent with the espoused values or principles. In order to understand the culture, the "goings on" at the deeper level must also be understood. This "deeper level" is more commonly known as the "hidden beliefs and assumptions" or "shared tacit assumptions".
There are four dimensions in this deeper level. They are:
Boundaries of Activities
The Nature/Truth of Decision Making
Assumptions about Time and Progress
1. Boundaries of Activities
These are the boundaries imposed on each job. These boundaries can range from parochial (narrow...