Sociologists suggest that working class children are at a disadvantage to the middle class with the education system due to many out of school factors.
One out of school factor is Material deprivation where children lack the physical necessities of life, such as adequate housing, diet and health and income.
However not all poor children fail, those with supportive parents may have high levels of motivation and that material deprivation also ignores in school factors.
Housing could have an affect on a working a child’s performance as there might be inadequate space in their home meaning there isn’t any space for the child to do their homework. Overcrowding in the house could lead to the child not being able to concentrate but it can also affect their sleep.
A criticism of this is it may be overcrowded however if there is a lot of siblings they might be able to help one another with homework so this could be a positive.
Health and Diet is also another material deprivation, Howard proposed that young people from poorer home have a lower intake of energy, vitamins and minerals. This can affect someone's health by weakening the immune system which can lead to absences from school.
However a problem with this is that having a poor diet can happen to anyone including the middle class and also healthy foods tend to be more expensive which some working class people can’t afford.
The income of the family can also be a factor of underachievement. Jesson and Gray found a correlation between low GCSE grades and low income families which may mean educational book and toys weren’t bought. Taken from item A “working class homes, with fewer books and educational toys, may provide a less stimulating learning environment” as working class parents may not have the financial income to buy items which could help them achieve in education.
A problem with what Jesson and Gray found is that it’s a correlation so you can’t specifically say that...