Muhammad: He created the religion called ‘Islam’. He is the religious leader of Islam/Muslims. He is known to be the last prophet of Allah. He is also known to be the military leader, too (while he stayed in Medina, he spread the Islam, and he gathered many followers.)
Kaaba: It is located in Mecca. Kaaba is a big, black box, which is made out of black stone. It used to be called ‘House of Abraham’. One of the 5 pillars of Islam said ‘Pilgrimage’, which tells you that you need to go to Mecca (of Kaaba, specifically) at least once in your life, if you could afford for it.
Hijrah: It is Muhammad’s fleeing from Mecca to Medina. Muhammad wanted to spread Islam/Monotheism, but Mecca didn’t accept it, and tried to kill Muhammad. Muhammad fled to Yathirm (now known as Medina, which means ‘Prophet’s City’.). There, he spread Islam, and the people were eager to learn it. Soon he gathered many followers.
Battle of Tours: It is a battle between the Franks and the Muslims. While Muslims were keeping on conquering new lands, they faced the Franks, and soon had a war with them. However, Franks won, and killed the Muslim leader. Muslims reached their greatest extent afterwards, but couldn’t continue conquering.
Astrolabe: It was invented during the Golden age. It was mainly used for locating distant stars, checking local time, and other astrological purposes. The invention of this tool led to a great advance in Astronomy, for Muslims. This advance helped our astronomy improve.
Chess piece: This is a Chess piece that looks like a knight. Muslims loved chess, because of its intellectual challenge, and its difficulty. We still play chess (it is quite famous), and it is loved by nearly everyone. The chess piece shown is made out of crystal. The rich people mainly use this.