Text-analysis based on functional approach
According to Christiane Nord, translation is "the production of a functional target text maintaining a relationship with a given source text that is specified according to the intended or demanded function of the target text (translation skopos).” (Christiane Nord, 1991, Text Analysis in Translation, Amsterdam, p.28.) In order to turn out a consistent, concise and appropriate translation, to all the translators text-analysis is a must.
I． The Importance of Text analysis
The source text provides the offer of information that forms the starting point for the offer of information formulated in the target text.
1.1 The role of Text analysis
Analysis of the source text guides the translation process in that it provides the basis for decisions about (a) the feasibility of the translation assignment, (b) which source-text units are relevant to a functional translation, and (c) which translation strategy will lead to a target text meeting the requirements of the translation brief. (Christiane Nord: 62)
2. Translation Brief
In her Translating As A Purposeful Activity, Christiane Nord put forward a layout for text-analysis based on functional-linguistics which is a great help for translators to understand the text function of source and target texts and to choose appropriate translation strategies accordingly.
The translation brief should contain (explicit or implicit) information about:
• The (intended) text function(s),
• The target-text addressee(s),
• The (prospective) time and place of text reception,
• The medium over which the text will be transmitted, and
• The motive for the production or reception of the text.
II．Text types and functions
Before looking at several elaborate examples, first let's have a brief look at K. Reiss's classification of text types and a translation-oriented model of text functions put forward by Christiane Nord in her Translating As A Purposeful Activity...