The Anatomy of a Neuron
The Stages of Neural Production
Growth and Development of Neurons
Three process in the development of neurons are scientifically distinguishable; proliferation, myelination, and synaptogenesis. When the cell is producing anew, this is called proliferation. The cells lining the ventricles of the brain divide early in development. Stem cells stay where they are, and continue to divide (Kalat, 2013). Others migrate as primitive neurons and glia. Some neurons migrate more rapidly than others. Myelination develops later, and is the production of an insulating fatty sheath.
Synaptogenesis forms the synapses in the final stage of development, beginning before birth and continuing throughout life. New synapses are always forming while discarding old ones. Neurons consist of long thin fibers between the cell bodies with small gaps separating the tips.
A neuron contains a nucleus, a membrane, ribosomes, mitochondria, and other structures. One of the most important features is the axon, which transmits information to the brain via neural impulses. This happens through a conduction of chemicals all along the axon so that when it reaches the brain it is just as strong as it started out. The properties of impulse conduction are well adapted to the exact needs for information transfer.
Action Potentials created by impulses moving sodium and potassium through gates along the axon are how the impulse messages reach the brain. When certain anesthetics are used they stop the sodium from moving, which stops the action potential from happening, thus receptors may be screaming "pain", they never reach the brain, so nothing happens, no pain is felt without the message reaching the brain.
Neurotransmitters are the chemicals neurons release that excite or inhibit another cell. Nearly all drugs that affect behavior or experience do so by way of synapses. For example opiates are used to relieve pain. A normal brain has opioid receptors that...