Chapter 22: Reconstruction
End of War was not end of problems for US
1.Problems of Peace: punish traitors, South physically, socially, culturally and economically devastated – emergence of the “Lost Cause”
2.Freedmen: A-A freedom meant new mobility (Exodusters) and creating new communities based on family and church
3.Freedmen’s Bureau (est. March 1865): first US social welfare agency. Success in education (volunteer women from North), but no economic help.
4.Andrew Johnson: Jacksonian heir to strict construction and populism.
5.Presidential Reconstruction: 10% Plan rejected by Republican Congress. Radicals want direct rule over conquered states. AJ issues pardons for traitors. “Unreconstructed” Southern States
6.Black Codes: legal economic and social restrictions on newly freedmen and women (not just in South!). Emergence of sharecropping and peonage.
7.Congressional Reconstruction: Southern congressmen refused entry. Republicans fear loss of control in Congress. AJ recognizes new States and constitutions.
8.AJ vs. Congress: veto of Freedmen’s Bureau begins conflict. Civil Rights Act (1866) vetoed and overridden. Fourteenth Amendment passed.
9.“Swing Round the Circle”: AJ campaigns for support against Congress, split over 14th Amendment. Radicals win in a landslide.
10.Republicans: split between Radicals and moderates. Thaddeus Stevens leader of those who want to use federal power to reconstruct Southern States.
11.Reconstruction by Force: Reconstruction Act (1867) created military governments and disfranchised ex-Confederates. Requires 14th Amendment and A-A suffrage. 15th Amendment passed (1870). Creation of “Radical” state governments, then end of military government, then emergence of “Redeemer” governments (Democratic or Fusion). See Map, page 491
12.No Women Votes
13.Radical Reconstruction: eventual A-A male suffrage,...