The Concepts of Nonmaleficence, Libertarianism and Dignity in Justice
The concept of Nonmaleficence explains that a person should not inflict evil or cause harm to others. Most consider that it should be the main focus or primary concern not to harm as in to do well. Specifically, society should not cause harm that can be avoidable or harm that is intentional. This includes avoiding the risk of violence. It is important to understand that this principle can be disobeyed with or without intention. Also you do not have to intend harm to violate this principle. In fact, you do not even have to cause harm to someone, if you know or not, subjecting a person to unnecessary risk will have violated this principle. There are many difficulties in pointing out and defining the cause of harm, there are many types of harm starting from physical to emotional injury, violations of rights or deprivation of property. In health care, the main focus on harm can be related to a much more narrow definition including pain, disability, or death. However, harm can be in the eye of the beholder.
There are many levels of harm that can come into play in a situation. For example, a surgeon will inflict a level of pain and suffering on a patient in order to avoid them from dying. The surgeon has done some harm in order to avoid a greater harm. However, in all cases, we are not allowed to cause unnecessary risk or harm. Many treatments carry some risk of harm. In some circumstances, in desperate situations where the outcome without treatment will be grave, risky treatments that stand a high chance of harming the patient will be justified, as the risk of not treating is also very likely to do harm. Therefore, the principle of Nonmaleficence is not absolute.
Justice can serve in many different ways to society from taking a human life that has done harm or caused pain and in return this person will be punished, detained or killed for acts of...