I. Location and physical relief.
Of the four countries which make up the United Kingdom, England is the largest. It occupies an area of 131,8 thousand sq.km. This part of Great Britain is divided into 39 non-metropolitan and 7 metropolitan ( that is, including a big city) countries. England borders on Scotland in the north. In the east it is washed by the North Sea. In the south it is separated from the continent by the English Channel. In the west it borders on Wales and is washed by the Bristol Channel and the Irish Sea. The highest part of England is the west, from where the land gradually slopes down to the east. England consists largely of undulating or flat lowland countryside. But lower hill ranges also stretch over much of the country, most important of these are: the North Yorkshire Moors, the limestone Cotswolds, the chalk North Downs and South Downs, and the Chiltern Hills. The east of the country is particularly low and flat. Some areas lie below sea level making it look similar to the Netherlands. Thee low-lying lands include the Lincolnshire and Cambridgeshire Fens, the Norfolk Broads and the Suffolk Marches.
England`s upland areas include such major hilly regions as: the broad central upland belt of the Pennines forming the 890 km-long backbone of Britain and reaching the Peak District in the South.The north-western region of the Lake District rising to Scafell Pike (987 m) ' the highest point in England and the Cumbrian Mountains;the Chaeviot Hills (between England and Scotland); the Yorkshire dales, running to the east coast of Yorkshire.
In the extreme south-west is Cornwall peninsula open to the winds of the Atlantic where ancient rocks make a low plateau, rising to the high moorland of Exmoor and Dartmoor. Age-old erosion is responsible for the low elevation of these hills. In some places the rocks rise above the moorland area in peaks called “tors”.
The rivers flowing to the east and emptying into the...