In the early Achaemenid Persian period, the Jews returned to Jerusalem to rebuild the temple of Yahweh.In the Old Testament, such as Ezra 1-6, Haggai, and Zechariah 1-8; early Achaemenid Persian administrative practices; and Judean hopes for restoration in order to question the contention that the Jerusalem temple was established as an economic and administrative centre around which competing groups struggled for socio-economic and political power.
A couple of prophets predicted the events of the exilic (586-516 BC) and Intertestamental era (400-5 B.C.), so the Jews would have some idea of what was coming as they waited on the promised Messiah. Hosea 3:3-5 also probably spans this era.
These promises of restoration are addressed to both the House of Israel (the Lost Tribes) and the House of Judah (the Jews). One of the most neglected points in the Hebrew Prophets, even among Jews, but virtually unacknowledged among Gentiles/Christians, is their constant emphasis on the total restoration of ALL Israel--meaning all twelve Tribes. Ephraim/Joseph, who has seemingly been lost among the Gentiles, will make himself known to his brother Judah. The results of this reunion will astound the world and alter world history. This is even hinted at mystically in the Joseph story (Genesis 45), but is declared in most uncertain terms throughout the Prophets. The average reader seldom notes the careful distinction which the Prophets consistently make between the House of Israel (Ephraim/Joseph), which refers to the Lost Tribes, and the House of Judah, whom we have known since the Babylonian Exile as the Jewish people.
What interpretation did the exilic and Post-exile prophets give to this era?
Restoration of Judah & 2nd Temple Era
2. Haggai and Zechariah arose as prophets to encourage the people to finish the temple...