Rome’s location was key, located on the Italian peninsula it had three sides of sea protection. The much less rugged topography then Greece allowed Rome to escape from forming into many isolated communities and assisted in the Roman ability to unite all of Italy under a single empire. It’s location 18 miles inland on the Tiber River gave it sea access but still a safe distance from sea invaders. The city was built on the famous 7 hills making it easily defended.
According to legend Rome was founded in 753 B.C.E by the brothers Romulus and Remus. Legend also maintained that Rome had been under the rule of seven kings two of whom had been Etruscans. Under Etruscan influence Rome emerged as a city and began to take its infamous architectural shape. But by 509 B.C.E the monarchy was overthrown and the Roman Republic emerged.
The executive officers of the Roman Republic were the consuls and the praetors. Two consuls and one praetor were chosen annually by the centuriate assembly. The Consuls administered the government and led the army, and the praetor could govern and lead armies when the consuls were away but there main function was the execution of justice. The Senate which was comprised of about 300 wealthy land owners advised the consuls and praetor. The Roman Republic was able to secure all of Italy under it’s power except for the far north. In order to rule these territories they developed the Roman Confederation. This system allowed some of the conquered peoples to become Roman citizens well the remaining were made allies. These allies continued to run their local affairs but were forced to provide soldiers to Rome. However allies were able to improve their status and even become citizens. The just way Rome ruled its conquered people allowed Rome to be as successful in expanding their empire across Italy as they were.
Roman society was split into 3 major classes the patricians, the plebeians, and...