The Structure and Communication of a Neuron
The neuron is an electronically excitable cell that processes and transmits information. There are approximately 100 billion individual neurons in the body. Human behavior also depends on the communication inside neurons and between neurons. The neuron is composed of several crucial parts. The dendrites are the thin web like strands that are responsible for bringing in information from other neurons through the synaptic receptor. The cell body contains the nucleus and other organelles that are responsible for the metabolic work of the neuron. Axons are thin fibers that transmit nerve impulses away to other neurons, glands, or muscles. Some axons are covered with an insulated material called the myelin sheath with interruptions in the sheath known as the nodes of Ranvier. The Presynaptic terminals are the end points of the axon which include end-bulbs and vesicles that release chemicals to communicate with other neurons.
Neurons go through 2 major processes called the resting potential and action potential. During the resting potential the neuron is negative in the inside and contains more potassium. It is maintained by the sodium-potassium pump. Resting potential turns into action potential when a stimulation passes the threshold of excitation. This triggers a nerve impulse in which a neurotransmitter is captured by the receptors of the dendrites and goes through the cell body/soma and down to the axons where sodium channels open up. When these sodium channels open up, sodium is entered into the cell and potassium exits the cell and the inside of the cell becomes less negative. After action potential, the sodium channels close and potassium channels open and then close when it returns to resting potential.
Neurons communicate by transmitting chemicals at junctions called synapses. The presynaptic neuron releases chemicals to the postsynaptic neuron....