Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy into chemical energy and storing it in the bonds of sugar molecules for food, by doing so it also releases oxygen into the environment during the process (Campbell et al. 2006). Photosynthesis occurs through two different processes known as Light and Dark reactions. The Photosynthesis equation is written as:
6CO2 + 12H2O C6H12O6 + 6H2 O + 6O2
Carbon Dioxide Water CHLOROPHYLL Carbohydrate Water Oxygen
The Light Reaction occurs in the Thylakoid membrane, it converts light energy into chemical energy by taking place in the light. Chlorophyll and several other pigments such as Beta-carotene are organized into clusters in the Thylakoid membrane and are involved in the light reaction; the different coloured light pigments can absorb slightly different coloured of light and passes its energy to the central chlorophyll molecule or a Prophyllin ring (Dearnaley et al. 2008). The second process is known as the Dark Reaction this process occurs in the Stroma within the Chloroplast, it converts Carbon Dioxide to sugar. This process doesn’t directly need light in order to occur, but it needs the products that the light reaction makes such as ATP and NADPH. The Dark Reaction involves a process known as the Calvin Cycle in which CO2 and energy from ATP are used to form sugar. The first product of Photosynthesis is a three-carbon compound called Glyceraldehyde- three-phosphate molecule; two of these molecules almost immediately join up to form a glucose molecule (Dearnaley et al. 2008).
Glucose which is the sugar molecule produced from the Photosynthesis process, can be used in several ways by the cell such as, respiring energy in the form of ATP. This is then either converted into other sugars or transformed into starch which is stored.
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