Genetic Manipulation is the artificial process of altering the genetic material of organisms such as animals and plants using modern biotechnology techniques. Genetic manipulating techniques have been applied in numerous fields including research, agriculture, industrial biotechnology, and medicine (1).
Selective breeding is a traditional method for improving crops and livestock, it is the intentional breeding of organisms with desirable traits in order to produce offspring with favorable characteristics and improved traits. Farmers have used selective breeding to improve the performance of their livestock so they are economically beneficial. One example of selectively bred animals is easy-care sheep that produced to have better welfare. Scientists manipulate genetic material when selective breeding sheep to identify which sheep contain the genes for desirable traits such as bare head, backside, legs and also short tails, in order for these traits to be expressed in sheep's phenotype, scientist select two members of the same species that has dominant alleles for the favorable trait and they are cross bred together to produce offspring that shows dominance in all the desirable traits.
Selective breeding has definite benefits for the survival of animals and greater disease resistance, in the case of easy care sheep, the scientists identified that wool on the backside and tail of sheep collects dags and the flies are attracted to the dags, usually leads to flystrike which happens when flies lay maggots in the fleece and then damage sheep's skin, it is a painful condition and will lead to death if it is untreated, so the scientists selected sheep that have genes of bare bodies to cross breed in order to minimize the problem of flystrike, and increase the chance of survival and health of sheep (2).
In long term effects, Selective breeding has major impact on genetic biodiversity and the evolution of organisms by eliminating alternate alleles. As same desirable...