Freud had broken down his psychodynamics into six different categories. According to Freud, ego is the section of the personality that mediates between reality, conscience, and instinctual needs. Reality principle refers to the way in which the ego seeks to satisfy instinctual demands safely and effectively in the real world. Superego is the social and parental standards the individual has internalized; these social and parental standards are known as the conscience and the Ego Ideal. Ego Ideal is the part of the superego that consists of the standards of what one would like to be. Defense Mechanisms are self-deceptive techniques for reducing anxiety and guilt; this includes: denial, repression, projection, identification, regression, intellectualization, reaction formation, displacement, and sublimation. Denial is known as the refusal to acknowledge a painful or threatening reality.
Jung had his Universal Human Archetypes separated into seven separate categories. According to Jung, Persona means our public self; our public self is the way we hide our true personalities to others. Anima means the way the female archetype is expressed in the male personality. Animus refers to the male archetype which is expressed in the female personality. An extrovert is a person who usually focuses on social life and the external world instead of focusing on his or her own internal experience. On the other hand, an introvert is a person who usually focuses on his or her own thoughts and feelings. Rational individuals are people who are able to regulate their actions by the psychological functions of thinking and feeling. Conversely, irrational individuals are people who base their actions on perceptions. People can do this either through the senses or unconsciously.