Note Card Xue Xia
1）· In the West is a population control policy of the People's Republic of China.
· The term "one-child" is a misnome.
2） · Population and Family Planning Commissions" exist at every level of government to raise awareness and carry out registration and inspection work.
· The policy was introduced in 1979 to alleviate social, economic, and environmental problems in China.
3） · Demographers estimate that the policy averted at least 200 million births between 1979 and 2009.
· During the period of Mao Zedong's leadership in China, the crude birth rate fell from 37 to 20 per thousand.
4） · Beginning in 1970, citizens were encouraged to marry at later ages and have only two children.
· The policy was managed by the National Population and Family Planning Commission under the central government since 1981.
5） · The one-child policy was designed from the outset to be a one-generation policy. It is enforced at the provincial level and enforcement varies; some provinces have relaxed the restrictions.
· The one-child limit has mostly been enforced in densely populated urban areas, and implementation varies from location to location.
6） · Since there are no penalties for multiple births, it is believed that an increasing number of couples are turning to fertility medicines to induce the conception of twins.
· Since the 1990s, some people have worried that this will result in a higher tendency toward poor social communication and cooperation skills among the new generation.
7） · people who lived in the rural areas of China were allowed to have two children without punishment. But, the family must wait a couple of years before having another child.
· The one-child policy has been challenged in principle for violating a human right to determine the size of one's own family.