7 layers of the OSI Model
Layer 1: Physical
This layer conveys the bit stream, electric impulse, light or radio signal through a network at an electrical or mechanical level. This layer provides the hardware means, which sends and receives data on a type of carrier, consisting of defining cables, network cards, and physical aspects. Physical layer includes a fast Ethernet, RS232, and ATM is protocols containing physical layer components.
Layer 2: Data Link
In a data link layer, data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. A data link layer equips the transmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer, flow control, and frame synchronization. A data link layer is divided into two sub-layers, Media Access Control (MAC) layer and Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. MAC sub-layer controls how a computer on a network gains access to the data and permission to transmit the data. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization, flow control, and error checking.
Layer 3: Network
The Network layer provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical paths known as virtual circuits for transmitting data from node to node. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer, including addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control, and packet sequencing.
Layer 4: Transport
This network layer provides a transparent transfer of data between end systems or hosts. This network layer is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. The transport network layer ensures thorough data transfer.
Layer 5: Session
This network layer establishes, manages, and terminates connections between applications. The Session network layer prepares, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogues between the applications at each end.
Layer 6: Presentation
This network layer provides independences from differences in data representation, such as connection...