Globalisation is the idea that the world is getting smaller, through inter connectedness, Different societies are becoming a lot closer to each other through technology and the media as well as transport. Fundamentalism, is the opposite to globalisation, where the core beliefs are still in practice.
Anthony Giddens argues that fundamentalism is a reaction to globalisation provides choice in many different areas of life, such as diversity, sexuality, careers etc, and because of this choice there is an element of uncertainty. Without globalisation, there wouldn’t be such an emphasis on fundamentalism as Giddens argues it is a relatively new term, indicating that it’s use is largely used to describe the many movements that are combating new age thinking. Bauman agrees with Giddens suggesting his own argument that postmodernity has increased the risk of making free choices, and some choose to adopt this new lifestyle whereas others associate themselves with movements of tradition and grounded truth. Examples of fundamentalist attacks on modern western society can be seen in the 9/11 attacks and various other vicious attacks between the east and west.
However, Beckford in 2003, criticised Giddens and Bauman, on the grounds that they group all types of fundamentalist groups together, and he argues this isn’t the case. Not all fundamentalist groups are reacting to globalisation. Jeff Haynes in 1998 argued that we shouldn’t focus on ideas that suggest fundamentalism is a reaction to globalisation, because it’s not always the same.
Similarly Steve Bruce argued that fundamentalism is a reaction to globalisation, because it threatens traditional practices and lifestyles, and once they feel threatened they develop strict rules for others to live by. However, Bruce confines fundamentalism to religions where there is one God and therefore one viewpoint, and when this authority is threatened by new age beliefs and lifestyles, fundamentalism develops, whereas it is highly...