1. What is Vedic literature? Name any four early Vedic literatures. (2+2)
Answer:-The word ‘Veda’ has a vast scope. The term Veda has come from the rood ‘Vid’ which means ‘to know’. Thus Veda means knowledge or wisdom. The Vedic literature comprises of the four principal Vedas , i.e. the Rig Veda, Yajur Veda , Sama Veda and Atharvaveda, the Brahminas , the Aranyakas, the Upanishads, the sutras, the Vedangas and the Upavedas, the Darshanas, the Puranas, the Dharam Shastras, etc. In other words, Vedic literature comprises of the wisdom of the Aryans. The four early vadic literatures are (i) The Rigveda (ii) The Sama Veda (iii) The Yajur Veda (iv)The Atharvaveda.
2. What does Upanishads contain? (3)
Answer: The Upanishads are the soure of Indian philosophy. They chiefly contain the relationship between the soul and the creator, to elucidate the theores of Karma, Maya and Mukti. The Upanishads have attracted the European scholars as well. These books are so popular that they have been translated into various languages of the worlds such as the English, the French, the Persian, etc. The most famous books of the Upanishads are the Chhandyogya, Brihadaranyaka, Aitereya, etc. They are of great historical importance because they contain the enormous mysteries of life and philosophy.
3. Describe the condition of the women in early Vedic period (3)
Answer:-The Indo Aryans held their women in high esteem. No holy function was to be performed without their active participation. The women too used to take part in all activities as there was no such system as the purdah system. They were given education as other member of the family. Some of them were renowned scholars like Vishwara, Gosha, Mudgalini, etc. who composed some of the Rig Veda hymns. All people except some kings and nobles practiced monogamy. Young men and women had the right to choose their own partners. There was neither child marriage nor the evil of sati. The widows had the choice to remarry. The dowry...