HISTORY OF ANATOMY
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1. Why did the study of anatomy/physiology remain dormant until the 5th Century B.C?
2. Ancient Greece
a. Empedocles- Greek scientists ( ca. 490-430 B.C.). believed that pneuma, which was both life and soul, flowed through the blood vessels.
b. Alcmaeon- Greek scientists (ca. 500 B.C.). .). The first person to dissect the human body for research purposes, he is also given credit for proposing that the brain is the center of intelligence.
c. Define the word ethereal and state how it relates to Empedocles pneuma. Extremely delicate and light in a way that seems too perfect for this world & Empedocles thought that pneuma life and soul flowing through the blood vessels and it was almost unbelievable.
d. Hippocrates- is known as the father of medicine.
e. Why were some of Hippocrates ideas rejected during his lifetime? When diseases were still thought to be punishments of god.
f. What advantage did Aristotle have over Hippocrates in terms of medicine? They were limited by the lack of dissections.
g. State two erroneous beliefs that Aristotle proposed. He believed that the brain cooled the heart by secreting “phlegm” and that the arteries only contained air.
3. The Beginning of Modern Anatomy
a. Erasistratus- conducted the first systematic dissections of the human body.
b. Herophilus- established the brain as the center of intelligence, distinguished between veins and arteries,and made many other accurate ovservation about the structure of the human body especially the nervous system.
c. Galen- considered to be the greated ancient physician after Hippocrates, he observed many brain structures, the structural differences between veins and ateries and many other structures of the human body including heart valves, and he observed that muscles contract in response to a stimulus from nerves, and demonstrated that the arteries carry blood not air.