Voyages Chapter Notes: Chapter 19
1. Contrary to common assumptions, Africa was not what? It had ancient connections to what?
Contrary to common assumptions, Africa was not an isolated continent. It had had been part of world history since the most ancient of times, with long-standing connections to Europe and Asia across the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, and the Indian Ocean.
2. What part of Africa had connections to the wider Christian world?
Ethiopia, Kongo, and South Africa. The Ethiopian church was already over 1000 years old.
3. Islam became established in which parts of Africa?
Islam had been long established on the East African Coast. The Sahel was a major diffusion point of Islam in West Africa. The Sahel was the arid region south of the Sahara desert and was the center of trade and urbanization in West Africa. One way Islam traveled was via caravan across the Sahara.
4. Portuguese, French, and English were finding a way to redirect West African trade where and for what commodity?
They were finding a way to redirect West African trade to the coast specifically focusing on the “commodity” which they were most interested in, slaves.
5. As natives of the Old World they (African slaves) had developed what?
West Africans had been connected to the wider Afro-Eurasian disease environment long ago which made them develop a resistance to the same diseases as Europeans. Additionally due to genetic adaption and childhood exposure, they were more likely to survive malaria and yellow fever.
6. What percent of Africans came to British North America?
Only 5% of the Africans who crossed the Atlantic during the Atlantic slave trade went to British North America. Most actually became a part of “slave societies” in Brazil and the Caribbean.
7. What is a real “slave society”?
A “slave society” is different from a “society with slaves”. A “society with slaves” had social institutions which allowed for slavery, very common in the...