Zoroastrianism was one of the great religions of the ancient world.
One supreme deity held a high ethical standard, promised salvation
Influence Judaism Christianity
Geography and resource
-Arose in lands bordering the Aegean Sea
-Resource: poor, settled in the Mediterranean and Black Sea
-Weather: hot, dry air/the front dissolve and ocean storm
-Location: the Greek mainland, the Aegean islands, and the western coast of
-Farmer depended on rainfall to their crop.
-Greek mainland has many natural harbors.
The emergence of the polis
Dark Age: a time of depopulation, poverty, and backwardness, isolated from the
Isolation ended by 800 BCE
New ideas (from east):
-Mythical beasts on the painted pottery
-First used alphabetic writing for economic poses
-Writing system, sounds of speaking language
Explosion of population:
-More intense use of the land
-Increasing prosperity based on the importation of food and raw material
-Establish independent colonies in distant lands.(mid-8 and mid-6 bce)
-Certain characteristic features
-Frequent conflict. (Greek- hoplites-heavily armored)
Greek states were defended by armies of private citizens
mostly farmers-call up for brief period of crisis, rather than by a
professional class of soldiers
-Their language, religion, lifestyle, new ideas and new technology.
-Coinage(early 6 BCE)- stimulated trade and increased the total wealth of the
-Reduce surplus population- colonization relieve pressure
king superseded by noble, peasant had land, merchant craftsman small
farms became middle class
-Mid-7 and 6 BCE: a tyrant-gained control- evolving political process- toward
oligarchy- political privilege by the wealthier members of society or
democracy(all free adult males)
-a wide of cults and beliefs,
-The ancestor: a collection of sky-god
-Worship of the gods: Sacrifice, the central ritual of Greek religion,...